There are seven kinds 0f Samghika-dana. They are:
(1) Offering to the Buddha and His male and female disciples, Bhikkhus and Bhikkhuni Samgha at the time of the Buddha;
(2) Offering to Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Samgha after the demise of the Buddha;
(3) Offering only to the Bhikkhu Samgha;
(4) Offering only to the Bhikkhuni Samgha;
(5) Offering to those pointed out by the Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Samgha regarding them as the Samgha;
(6) Offering to those pointed out by the Bhikkhu Samgha regarding them as the Samgha;
(7) Offering to those pointed out by the Bhikkhuni Samgha regarding them as the Samgha.
With respect to Samghika-dana, there is only one kind of Samgha. The Samgha cannot be differentiated into good or bad Samgha. The Noble Disciples (Ariyas) cannot be differentiated as inferior and superior. All the members of Samgha are noble. Therefore, if one dedicates to the Samgha and offers to the members of the Samgha without any discrimination of the persons, that offering is called Samghika-dana. The Samgha member, who is in front of the donor, is representative of the whole Samgha, so even though he may be wicked, since the original donee Samgha is noble, the offering is a noble Samghika-dana.
The Benefits 0f Samghika-dana Compared With All Kinds 0f Puggalika-dana
With respect to the greatly beneficial offerings, the Buddha said as follows:
The offering of only one meal to a Stream-winner (Sotapanna) brings more benefit than the great charity performed by the Brahmin Velama. Again, offering only one meal to a Once-returner (Sakadagami) brings more benefits than giving meals to one hundred Stream-winners (Sotapanna). Similarly, offering to a Non-returner (Anagami) brings greater benefits than offering to one hundred Once-returners (Sakadagami). Similarly, offering to an Arahat brings more benefits than offering to one hundred Non-returners (Anagami), offering to a lesser Buddha brings more benefits than offering to one hundred Arahats, offering to a Buddha brings more benefits than offering to one hundred lesser Buddhas, offering to the Buddha and His disciples (offering to Samgha Order or Samghika-dana) brings more benefits than all previous offering. So Samghika-dana conquers all kinds 0f Pugalika-dana.
The donation of a monastery intended for all Bhikkhus coming from all directions, brings still greater benefits.
Thus people all over the world perform various kinds of alms-giving according to their respective custom and religious beliefs. All of them, except Buddhists, give away their money and property with a worldly outlook of social welfare. They offer with the main intention of becoming rich and prosperous in the present life as the result of their offering. In reality the charity can bring great benefits not only in the present life but also in many future existences. When one performs charity, one can enjoy great benefits only when one’s giving is accompanied with three-folded noble volition, the knowledge of Kamma and Its Results (Kammassakatanana) , and the opportunity to donate to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Samgha. This opportunity that exists only in the Buddha’s Sasana.
Therefore, all Buddhists should make their provisions for the journey through Samsara by performing their charity in the correct way during the Buddha Sasana.
Title- Fourteen Kinds of Puggalika-dana