The Noble Truth of Suffering consists of the facts of new births in numerous ways, the coming into being, then decay (old age), illness, death. Life is full of sufferings: anxiety (longing, anguish), regret, crying, physical pain, mental pain, lamentation and others. Moreover, conjoining or meeting with unloved, hateful persons or objects, not joining or dissociation with loved ones, loved objects are dukkha, suffering. In brief, the Five Groups of Grasping are dukkha.
The Compassionate Buddha declared that even mundane/worldly pleasures or happiness much loved by mankind and animals, together with jhanic happiness of the Brahma world, are dukkha. They are called temporal joys and they are dukkha.
As there are several dukkha in all the worlds, one can briefly note and study the main types as follows:-
(1) Ordinary common suffering called Dukkha-Dukkha.
(2) Things, existences are always impermanent and always changing = Viparinama-Dukkha.
(3) Things, existences are always conditioned and in components = conditioning suffering = Sankhara-Dukkha.
The first type, the Dukkha-Dukkha, can be seen and studied: birth, decay, illness, death, association with the unloved, separation with the loved (beings & objects of mind), dissatisfaction (desire unfulfilled), anxiety, crying, physical and mental anguish, sorrow, etc., are collectively termed “Dukkha-Dukkha”.
The second type, the Viparinama-Dukkha, reveals all of us: even the highest worldly pleasures and the best happiness cannot last long. Sooner or later pleasant things and good experiences change. When things we like change we feel pain, sorrow, worry, perplexity, etc. These sufferings of “change” is collectively termed “Viparinama-Dukkha”.
The third type, the Sankhara-Dukkha, teaches us like this: the technical term “sankhara” means all things are conditioned by factors and causes, which signify mind and matter (five khandhas). These materiality, feeling, perception, volitional activities, consciousness, being always formed in group, are “grasping aggregates” (aggregates of grasping). There is no soul or person. Only the quick changes of these five khandha sankharas constitute “Sankhara-Dukkha”.
In fact when five khandhas arise there are so-called “beings”, “persons”. Yet basically all these khandha grasping groups are in a state of flux, in tremendous changes. Thus impermanence is suffering. Instability is suffering.
Since Dukkha Sacca is the basic fact of all lives and existences, it must be noted and understood clearly. If and when the truth of suffering is practically known with insight-wisdom one also realizes the truth of the cause/origin of suffering; the truth of the cessation of suffering; the way to the cessation of suffering are also known clearly. Therefore it is crucially important to see, to watch all aspects of Dukkha Sacca in detail to win the whole Truths. Dukkha is the basic to know and to overcome in this very life!
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Title-The Four Ariya Truths