The Buddha becomes fully enlightened by Himself on attainment of the Four Ariya Truths and also makes others enlightened. The Buddha is one who penetratively knows the Four Ariya Truths by Himself and teaches others to realize them.
The Four Ariya Truths are:
(1) The Ariya Truth of Suffering (Dukkha-Sacca)
A being is made up of five aggregates- the aggregate of corporeality, the aggregate of sensation, the aggregate of perception, the aggregate of volitional activities and the aggregate of consciousness.Because of these aggregates, all of us always have to struggle for food, shelter and clothing. The Buddha sees the whole world as a mess of suffering.
Birth is suffering; aging also is suffering; ailment also is suffering; death also is suffering; association with those one dislikes also is suffering; separation from beloved ones also is suffering; not to get what one desires also is suffering; to dislike what one gets also is suffering; grief; lamentation; bodily pain; mental distress; agony are also sufferings. All the five aggregate arise and dissolve incessantly all the time. So they are impermanent, transient and fleeting. What is not permanent is not satisfactory and being tortured incessantly by the dissolution of the five aggregates is “real suffering” (called Simkhara-Dukkha). What cannot be controlled by oneself, what is not conforming to one’s wishes, what is not “I”, “person”, “self”, “ego” or “soul” is known as “non-self” or “Anatta”. So in brief, the five aggregates of clinging are suffering.
The Buddha thoroughly discerned the Ariya Truth of Suffering and expounded this Truth so that others also should realize this Ariya Truth.
(2) The Ariya Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Samudaya-Sacca)
One, in search of the origin of suffering, will find craving or greed (Lobha) as the cause. Craving is of three kinds.
(i) Craving for and becoming attached to pleasures of the senses (Kama-Tanha);
(ii) Craving for and becoming attached to continued existence, either the present sensual existence, or higher Rupa or Arupa existences ( Bhava Tanha);
(iii) Craving for and becoming attached to non-existence (Vibhava Tanha).
Craving, desiring and longing for sensual pleasures and sense objects are the causes of suffering. When we crave for more wealth and higher position, that craving or thirst brings about suffering; the struggle to attain those objects brings about suffering; dissatisfaction with what one acquired brings about suffering. This craving or thirst can never be satisfied. Like the salt-water which cannot quench one’s thirst, the more one gets, the more one craves for. Pursuing after wealth and position causes suffering; safe-guarding the properties one has acquired causes suffering; and the loss of these properties or one’s position also causes suffering. So long as the craving is not eradicated one cannot liberate oneself from the mass of sufferings. Therefore, craving is the origin of suffering and is called Samudaya-Sacca.
The Buddha thoroughly discerned the Ariya Truth of the Cause of Suffering and expounded this Truth so that others also realize and eliminate craving which constitutes the Ariya Truth of the Cause of Suffering.
(3) The Ariya Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering (Magga-Sacca)
The one and only path leading to Nibbana is the Ariya Path of Eight Constituents. The Eight Constituents of the Ariya Path are:
(i) Right View= Samma Ditthi;
(ii) Right Thinking= Samma Sankappa;
(iii) Right Speech= Samma Vasa;
(iv) Right Action= Samma Kammanta;
(v) Right Livelihood= Samma Ajiva;
(vi) Right Effort= Samma Vayama;
(vii) Right Mindfulness= Samma Sati; and
(viii) Right Concentration= Samma Samadi.
The Buddha admonished beings to develop these Eight Constituents of the Ariya Path.
The Ariya Path of Eight Constituents is the one and only true way to Nibbana which is free from the round of rebirths, Samsara. There is no other path. Therefore it is evident that one cannot attain Nibbana merely by saying prayers or paying homage to the Buddha. One has to treat the Ariya Path, i.e. cultivating Vipassana by oneself to get to Nibbana. The Ariya Path is also called the Middle Way (Majjhimapatipada), steering clear of the Two Extremes___Indulgence in sensual pleasures (Kamasukhallikanuyoga) and Self-mortification ( Attakilamathanuyoga).
Samma Vasa, Samma Kammanta and Samma Ajiva constitute the training of Morality; Samma Vayama, Samma Sati and Samma Samadi constitute the Training of Concentration and Samma Ditthi and Samma Sankappa constitute the Training of Wisdom.
The Eight Constituents of the Ariya Path are not to be practised individually. When one contemplates the Three Characteristics of Mind and Matter__Anicca, Dukkha and Anatta, one is said to be developing the Constituents of the Noble Path.
The Buddha thoroughly discerned the Ariya Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering and expounded this Truth so that others can develop the Eight Constituents of the Path and realize this Ariya Truth.
(4) The Ariya Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (Niroda-Sacca)
The Buddha knew that Nibbana is the extinction of all sufferings. Only the noble ones (Ariyas) can understand the profundity of Nibbana. All existences in the thirty-one planes are subjected to birth, aging, sickness and death, and so they are suffering. Wherever there is existence, there is mind and matter and as mind and matter are impermanent, unsatisfactory and insubstantial (non-self), there is suffering. When craving, the builder of new existences, is eliminated, all sufferings will cease forever. This is called Nibbana or Niroda-Sacca.
The Buddha thoroughly discerned the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering and expounded this Truth so that others also realize this Ariya Truth.
Only the Self-Enlightened Buddhas know the Four Ariya Truths thoroughly and make others know the Ariya Truths as well.
Doc Versions Here In My Group:
TFAT(1)=The Ariya Truth of Suffering (Dukkha-Sacca)
TFAT(2)=The Ariya Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Samudaya-Sacca)
TFAT(3)=The Ariya Truth of the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering (Magga-Sacca)
TFAT(4)=The Ariya Truth of the Cessation of Suffering (Niroda-Sacca)
Title-The Only Way Leading to Nibbana
Title- Dukkha Sacca: The Noble Truth of Suffering (2nd Explanation)
Title- Samudaya Sacca: The Truth of The Cause/Origin of Suffering (2nd Explanation)
Title- Magga Sacca:The Path Leading to the Cessation of Suffering (2nd Explanation)
Title- Nirodha Sacca: The Truth of Cessation of Suffering (2nd Explanation)