Kamma is of four kinds according to the priority of bearing results.
They are –
(1st Prioriy) = Garuka Kamma,
(2ndPrioriy) = Asanna Kamma,
(3rdPrioriy) = Acinna Kamma and,
(4th Prioriy) = Katatta Kamma.
The Garuka Kamma
Garuka kamma means serious or weighty kamma.It may be either good or bad.It is so strong that it will certainly produce its results in the next existence.The powerful mental absorptions called jhanan,(Mahaggata kamma),belong to good weighty kamma.The five heinous deeds which certainly bear results after death (Anantariya kamma) and the permanent false view (Niyatamicchaditthi kamma) belong to bad weighty kammas.
There are altogether nine good weighty kammas:the five rupavacara-kusala kammas:the first jhana,the second jhana,the third jhana,the fourth jhana,the fifth jhana,and the four arupavacara kusala kamma:akasanancayatana jhana,vinnanancayatana jhana, akincannayatana jhana,and nevasannasannayatana jhana.One who has attained one of these jhanas and maintains it till his death will surely be reborn in the Brahma realm corresponding to that jhana.These jhanas are called kusala garuka kammas because they are strong enough to produce good results at death.
On the other hand,the five anantariya kammas and niyatamicchaditthi kamma are bad weighty kammas.Anantariya kamma means the heinous deed that sends one to niraya.It is of five kinds,namely,matricide (matughataka),patricide (pitughataka),killing an arahat (arahantaghataka),wounding the Buddha (Lohituppadaka) and causing schism in the Samgha (Samghabheddaka).Because there are five kinds,they are also called pancanantariya kamma.
When one intentionally kills his parents,whether he knows them to be his parents or not,he will suffer the evil results of pancanantariya kamma.If one’s parents are animals or if oneself is an animal,the killing of one’s parents cannot be regarded as anantariya kamma but one will have to suffer the evil consequences which are almost as effective as these of anantariya kamma.Killing an arahat and wounding the Buddha are also called anantariya kamma.
Even though causing a schism in the samgha is concerned with monks only,those laymen and novices,who cause a schism in the Samgha,will have to suffer very serious evil consequences. If one’s attempts to cause a schism in the order of Bhikkhus are successful,one has committed the Samghabhedaka kamma.
When one commits any one of the pancanantariya kamma,one is sure to be reborn in avici niraya after one’s death.Out of these five heinous deeds,Samghabhedaka kamma is the most serious.It can make one suffer in avici niraya thoughout the Ayukappa.Destruction of pagodas and Bodhi trees are also included in Lohituppadaka kamma and their evil results are as heinous as those of wounding the Buddha.
The evil results of the five heinous deeds decrease in this order.Samghabhedaka,Lohituppadaka,Arahantaghataka,Matughataka and pitughataka.If one’s father is more virtuous than one’s mother,pitughataka becomes more serious than matughataka.A person who clings to the wrong view will also be surely reborn in niraya after his death.
Asanna or Death-proximate kammais that which one does or remembers just before death.Some meritorious and demeritorious actions (kusala and akusala kamma),performed earlier before death,which one might have forgotten may come back to one’s memory at the dying moment.Although this action has been done by oneself in the former time,it makes its appearance to oneself at the dying moment.For this reason this kamma is called Asanna Kamma.Those meritorious actions such as listening to discourses,observing moral precepts,practicing meditation,as well as those demeritorious actions such as killing,harming others,stealing,lying and committing adultery,which are performed by oneself just before death,belong to Assana Kammas.
Acinna Kamma is the habitual action which is performed and remembered constantly.Those who earn their livings by killing or stealing throughout their lives are performing demeritorious Acinna-Kamma.Those who practice alms-giving,morality and meditation constantly are accumulating meritorious Acinna Kamma.
If,after performing an immoral action,one always remembers it ,worries about it,and grieves over it,one is also acquiring demeritorious Acinna-Kamma.Similarly,if one performs a moral action,remembers it and rejoices in it repeatedly,one is increasing one’s meritorious Acinna kamma.
Although Acinna Kamma is stronger by nature than Asanna Kamma,Asanna Kamma is more important in conditioning the rebirths because it is close to Maranasannajovithi (the latest mind before death).For example:a cowherd keeps his cattle in the cattle-pen for the night.An old and weak cow has to sleep near the gate because of its slow movements.In the morning when the gate is opened,although young strong bulls try to come out first,the old cow nearest the gate walks out first.Similarly,although Acinna Kamma is a strong one,Asanna Kamma bears its results in the next existence because of its proximity to the death-consciousness.
Due to the Kamma which has the chance to condition the next birth,one of the following three objects always presents itself through one of the six sense doors:-Kamma,Kammanimitta,Gatinimitta.This object,which appears in one of the sense-doors,is called the Kamma-related object (maranasanna-nimitta).This object initiates a cognitive series of consciousness called maranasannajovithi.
All actions,which were performed in the past and not included in the afore-mentioned three Kammas:Garuka Kamma,Asanna Kamma,Acinna Kamma ,are called Katatta Kamma.
Katatta Kamma included the actions performed in this life as well as the actions performed in the past lives.So,there is nobody who is free from Katatta Kamma.When the first three types of Kamma are absent,Katatta Kamma will condition the next rebirth.
Title- The Five Great Misdeeds that Definitely Lead to Niraya at Death