Title- Associates of Enlightenment (Bodhipakkhiya Dhammas)


 

 

 

Bodhipakkhiya is the combination of the Pali words: Bodhi, pakkha and iya.

Bodhi means Magga-nana or Enlightenment of the Four Ariya Truths. Bodhipakkhiya means the components or associates of Enlightenment.

Mindfulness (Sati), effort (viriya), etc., are called the factors associated with Enlightenment.

 

 

The Bodhipakkhiya dhammas consist of Thirteen-Seven Factors, namely:

  • The 4 foundations of mindfulness (Satipatthana),

  • The 4 supreme efforts (Sammappadhana),

  • The 4 bases of accomplishment (Iddhipada),

  • The 5 faculties (Indriya),

  • The 5 powers (Bala),

  • The 7 factors of enlightenment (Bhojjhanga) and

  • The 8 constituents of the path (magganga).

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the 4 foundations of mindfulness (Satipatthana)

 

 

Satipatthana means mindfulness or heedfulness which is firmly established on its objects.

 

There are 4 Satipatthanas or foundation of mindfulness

 

(1)    Kayanupassana Satipatthana= mindfulness which is firmly established on physical phenomena; contemplations of corporeality;

 

(2)    Vedananupassana Satipatthana= mindfulness which is firmly established on sensations; contemplation of sensation

 

(3)    Cittanupassana Satipatthana= mindfulness which is firmly established on thoughts or mental processes, contemplation of consciousness, and

 

(4)    Dhammanupassana Satipatthana= mindfulness which is firmly established on Dhamma; contemplation of aggregate of perceptions and aggregate of volitional activities.

 

 

The essence of 4 Satipatthanas is mindfulness. But it is described as 4 Satipatthanas, because

 

  • The 4 objects of contemplation-kaya, vedana, citta and dhamma___are different;
  • The 4 manners of contemplation on those objects-kaya as asuba, vedana as dukkha, citta as anicca and dhamma as anatta___are different;
  • The 4 purposes of contemplation to eradicate the wrong views that kaya is subha, vedana is sukkah, citta is nicca and dhamma is atta___are different.

 

The essence of Kayanupassana Satipatthana is the aggregate of corporeality (rupakkhandha).

The essence of Vedananupassana Satipatthana is the aggregate of sensation (vedanakkhanda).

The essence of Cittanupassana Satipatthana is the aggregate of consciousness (vinnanakkhandha).

The essence of Dhammanupassana Satipatthana is the aggregate of perception (sannakkhandha) and the aggregate of volitional activities (sankharakkhanda).

 

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the 4 supreme efforts (Sammappadhana)

 

 

Sammappadhana means supreme effort. Being the mental state of right exertion, viriya is called Sammappadhana.

 

The term “Sammappadhana” is the name given to viriya cetasika. The unfaltering effort of one who vows: “Let only my skin, sinews, and bones remain, and let my flesh and blood in the body dry up, I shall not permit the course of my effort to stop until I win that which may be won by human ability, human effort and human exertion” signifies Sammappadhana.

 

The 4 supreme efforts are:

 

(1)    Right effort to discard demeritorious deeds that have arisen, or are in the course of arising;

(2)    Right effort to avoid committing demeritorious deeds that have not yet arisen;

(3)    Right effort to perform meritorious deeds that have not yet arisen;

(4)    Right effort to develop and multiply the meritorious deeds that have arisen.

 

 

The Essences of Sammappadhana

 

Viriya present in 21 kusala-cittas is the essence of Sammappadhana. (Sammappadhana does not concern with arahats. So, viriya-cetasika that arises in the mind-continuum of arahats should not be counted. Moreover, sammappadhana does not concern with the Fruition-consciousnesses, because these fruition-consciousnesses cannot carry out the 4 functions of viriya mentioned above).

 

The reason why viriya is described as the 4 supreme efforts is that the function of viriya has been differentiated into 4 categories:

 

(1)    To discard evils that have arisen,

(2)    To prevent evils that have not arisen,

(3)    To bring about good that has not arisen and

(4)    To develop the good that has arisen

 

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the 4 bases of accomplishment (Iddhipada)

 

 

Iddhipada means bases of accomplishment of jhanas, maggas and phalas. So, chanda, viriya, citta and vimamsa are called the bases of accomplishment. The four bases are:

 

(1)    Chandiddhipada= will, wish-to-do,

(2)    Viriyiddhipada= effort,

(3)    Cittiddhipada= consciousness or thought,

(4)    Vimamsiddhipada= wisdom.

 

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the 5 faculties (Indriya)

 

 

Indriya means “faculty” or “controlling factor”. Saddha, viriya, sati, ekaggata, and panna cetasikas control their respective coexistent mental state and material phenomena, and so they are called indriyas.

 

There are 5 indriyas among the factors of enlightenment:

 

(1)    Saddhindriya = faculty of conviction or confidence,

(2)    Viriyindriya = faculty of effort,

(3)    Satindriya = faculty of mindfulness,

(4)    Samadhindriya = faculty of concentration, and

(5)    Pannindriya = faculty of wisdom.

 

 

The Essences of Five Indriyas

 

(1)    Conviction (saddha-cetasika) is the essence of Saddhindriya.

(2)    Effort (viriya-cetasika) is the essence of Viriyindriya.

(3)    Mindfulness (sati-cetasika) is the essence of Satindriya.

(4)    One-pointedness of the mind (ekaggata-cetasika) is the essence of Samadhindriya.

(5)    Wisdom (panna-cetasika) is the essence of Pannindriya.

 

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the 5 powers (Bala)

 

 

“Bala” means “power”. Saddha, viriya, sati, ekaggata and panna cetasikas are the powers which strengthen their coadjuncts and they cannot be shaken by their opposing forces.

 

There are five kinds of bala that act as factors of enlightenment.

 

(1)    Saddha bala = power of conviction or confidence that destroys wrong belief, etc.,

(2)    Viriya bala = power of effort that destroys drowsiness, laziness, etc.,

(3)    Sati bala = power of mindfulness that destroys forgetfulness,

(4)    Samadi bala = power of concentration that destroys restlessness, and

(5)    Panna bala = power of wisdom that destroys stupidity.

 

 

The Essences of Five Balas

 

(1)    Saddha cetasika is the essence of Saddha bala.

(2)    Viriya cetasika is the essence of Viriya bala.

(3)    Sati cetasika is the essence of Sati bala.

(4)    Ekaggata cetasika is the essence of Samadi bala.

(5)    Panna cetasika is the essence of Panna bala.

 

The 5 indriyas can control their respective co-adjuncts well, and the 5 balas have enough strength to destroy their opposing factors as described below.

 

(1)    In the four characteristics of Stream winners (Sotapannas) , that is, having unshakable conviction in the Buddha, having unshakable conviction in the Dhamma, having unshakable conviction in the Samgha, having unshakable conviction in morality, the conviction (saddha) is very strong and can control the mind effectively. It will never be shaken by any of its opposing forces. So, that Saddha is the essential element of both Saddhindriya and Saddha-bala.

 

(2)    In the 4 supreme efforts (sammappadhana), the effort (viriya) is very strong and it can control the mind effectively. It will never be shaken by any of its opposing forces. So, that viriya is the essential element of both Viriyindriya and Viriya-bala.

 

(3)    In the 4 foundations of mindfulness (Satipatthanas), the mindfulness (Sati) is very strong and it can control the mind effectively. It will never be shaken by any of its opposing forces. So, that Sati is the essential element of both Satindriya and Sati-bala.

 

(4)    In the 4 Jhanas, concentration (samadi) is very strong and it can control the mind effectively. It will never be shaken by any of its opposing forces. So, that samadi is the essential element of both Samadhindriya and Samadhi-bala.

 

(5)    In the 4 Ariya Truths, the wisdom (panna) is very strong and it can control the mind effectively. It will never be shaken by any of its opposing forces. So, that panna is the essential element of both Pannindriya and Panna-bala.

 

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the 7 factors of enlightenment (Bhojjhanga)

 

 

Bhojjhanga means Factors of Path-consciousness which can realize the 4 Ariya Truths. It is also called Constituents of Enlightenment. There are 7 Factors of Enlightenment:

 

(1)    Sati Sambhojjhanga= the enlightenment factor of mindfulness,

(2)    Dhammavicaya Sambhojjhanga= the enlightenment factor of wisdom that investigates the truth,

(3)    Viriya Sambhojjhanga= the enlightenment factor of effort,

(4)    Piti Sambhojjhanga= the enlightenment factor of delightful satisfaction or rapture,

(5)    Passaddhi Sambhojjhanga= the enlightenment factor of tranquility,

(6)    Samadhi Sambhojjhanga= the enlightenment factor of concentration,

(7)    Upekkha Sambhojjhanga= the enlightenment factor of equanimity.

 

 

The Essences of the Seven Bhojjhangas

 

(1)    Sati cetasika is the essence of Sati Sambhojjhanga.

(2)    Panna cetasika is the essence of Dhammavicaya Sambhojjhanga.

(3)    Viriya cetasika is the essence of Viriya Sambhojjhanga.

(4)    Piti cetasika is the essence of Piti Sambhojjhanga.

(5)    Kayapassadhi and cittapassadhi cetasikas are the essence of Passaddhi Sambhojjhanga.

(6)    Ekaggata cetasika is the essence of Samadhi Sambhojjhanga.

(7)    Tatramajjhattata cetasika is the essence of Upekkha Sambhojjhanga.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Explanation of the 8 constituents of the path (magganga)

 

 

Magga means the Ariya Path leading to the liberation from Samsara. That Ariya Path is made up of 8 constituents known as 8 maggangas. On account of this, that Ariya Path is usually called the Path of 8 Constituents.

 

The 8 maggangas are:

 

(1)    Sammaditthi= right view,

(2)    Sammasankappa= right thinking,

(3)    Sammavaca= right speech (abstaining from 4 verbal evil actions),

(4)    Sammakammanta= right action (abstaining from three bodily evil actions),

(5)    Sammaajiva= right livelihood (abstaining from evil deeds and evil speeches concerning livelihood),

(6)    Sammavayama= right effort,

(7)    Sammasati= right mindfulness,

(8)    Sammasamadhi= right concentration.

 

 

The Essences of the Eight Maggangas

 

(1)    Wisdom (Panna) is the essence of Sammaditthi Maggana.

(2)    Initial application (Vitakka) is the essence of Sammasankappa Maggana.

(3)    Right speech (Sammavaca) is the essence of Sammavaca Maggana.

(4)    Right action (Sammakammanta) is the essence of Sammakammanta Maggana.

(5)    Right livelihood (Sammaaajiva) is the essence of Sammmaajiva Maggana.

(6)    Effort (Viriya) is the essence of Sammavayama Maggana.

(7)    Mindfulness (Sati) is the essence of Sammasati Maggana.

(8)    One-pointedness of the mind (Ekaggata) is the essence of Sammasamadhi Maggana.

 

 

Doc Version Here In My Group:
https://web.facebook.com/notes/buddhism-for-beginners/associates-of-enlightenment-bodhipakkhiya-dhammas/742754955781295

 

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