Detailed Explanation of Factors Contained In Paticcasamuppada Circle As Shown Below In Diagram
Teaching & Learning of Paticcasamuppada Circle is really a difficult work because it is the understanding of reality, truth of Paramattha or Abhidhama Desana. It is so deep and difficult to understand at once. But we must have to try because this is the best weapon of annihilating Ditthi (wrong view) and Vicikacca (suspicious, doubt). This would also be a bit helpful in doing practical vipassana meditation by gaining higher vipassana wisdom easily and quickly. So, I want you all to have a strong knowledge in that. I satisfy even if this would be a little bit helpful for you all to annihilate wrong view and doubt by understanding the reality or truth of life.
Detailed explanation of factors contained in Paticcasamuppada Circle will cover the following titles-
Three Time (kala, period),
Three Rounds of Vatta (dukkha suffering),
Another Way of Four Layers, and
Two Basic Causes of Series of Lives.
All worldlings/common people everywhere have to go rounds and rounds of Dependent Origination which is the natural law of life. There are 12 factors in the Law of Dependent Arising.
(1) Avijja (ignorance)
(2) Sankhara (volitional activities=formations)
(3) Vinnana (32 kinds of mundane cittas of resultants)
(4) Nama-Rupa (materiality due to the cause of 32 mundane resultant cittas and materiality due to kamma)
(5) Salayatana (six faculties: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind)
(6) Phassa (contact or touch)
(7) Vedana (feeling or sensation of objects)
(8) Tanha (greed or lust)
(9) Upadana (clinging or grasping, lust and wrong view)
(10) Bhava (becoming:kammic existence and physical existence)
(11) Jati (birth, past births and future births)
(12) Jara, Marana (old age/decay and death)
The remaining “sorrow”, “anxiety”, “lamentation”, etc., are not counted within these twelve consequential links of life because they signify jati and marana in truth.
Three Time (kala, period)
(1) Avijja and Sankhara belong to the past.
(2) Vinnana, Namarupa, Salayatana, Phassa, Vedana, Tanha, Upadana and Bhava belong to the present.
(3) Jati and Marana belong to the future.
Three Rounds of Vatta (dukkha suffering)
(1) Avijja, Tanha, Upadana mean Defilement Round,
(2) Sankhara, Kammabhava mean Kammic Round,
(3) Vinnana, Namarupa, Salayatana, Phassa, Vedana, Upapattibhava, Jati and Jara-Marana mean Resultant (Vipaka) Round.
(1) Past 5 Factors of Cause- Avijja, Sankhara, Tanha, Upadana, Bhava
(2) Present 5 Factors of Resultant- Vinnana, Nama-Rupa, Salayatana, Phassa, Vedana (Jati, Jara-Marana)
(3) Present 5 Factors of Cause-Tanha, Upadana, Bhava, Avijja, Sankhara
(4) Future 5 Factors of Resultant- Vinnana, Nama-Rupa, Salayatana, Phassa, Vedana (Jati, Jara-Marana)
In the past existences we all had five factors of Avijja, Sankhara, Tanha, Upadana, Bhava as Past Cause.
In the present existence we all have five factors of Vinnana, Nama-Rupa, Salayatana, Phassa, Vedana (Jati, Jara-Marana) as Present Resultant.
In the present existence we all have five factors of Tanha, Upadana, Bhava, Avijja, Sankhara
as Present Cause.
In future existence there will be five factors of Vinnana, Nama-Rupa, Salayatana, Phassa, Vedana (Jati, Jara-Marana) as Future Resultant.
Therefore “Paticcasamuppada” means samsaric births and rebirths with twelve links in a suitable way. There are altogether 20 factors of the past, present and future. These factors of samsaric lives are for all ordinary persons without four noble truths.
(1) First Connection: between Sankhara and Vinnana
(2) Second Connection: between Vedana and Tanha
(3) Third Connection: between: between Bhava and Jati
The First Connection shows the relation between Past and Present; cause and effect; past cause and present result.
The Second Connection shows the relation between Present and Present; cause and effect; present cause and present effect.
The Third Connection shows the relation between Present and Future; cause and effect; present cause and future effect.
(1) One Layer: Avijja and Sankhara,
(2) One Layer: Vinnana, Nama-Rupa, Salayatana, Phassa and Vedana,
(3) One Later: Tanha, Upadana and Bhava,
(4) One Layer: Jati and Jara-Marana.
Another Way of Four Layers
(1) Past Five Causal Factors = One Layer,
(2) Present Five Causal Effects = One Layer,
(3) Present Five Causal Factors = One Layer,
(4) Future Five Causal Effects = One Layer.
Two Basic Causes of Series of Lives
(1) For past rounds of existences, Avijja is the main cause
(2) For future rounds of existences, Tanha is the main cause. Previous bhava-khandha is the past main cause. Coming bhava-khandha is the future main cause.